Basic approaches that have evolved over time to improve productivity

The Human Relations Approach


Human relations are important to the development and long term sustainability of organizations. They, human relations, can be interpreted in many different ways. As many organizations and people see human relations from a completely different viewpoint.

However, human relations in the work environment and from a management point of view, we suggest, can be classified into two main points as follows:

  • Industrial relations, or human relations which results from the meetings of management and workers.
  • The personal or human relationships which spring up, grow and exist in any work place environment.

The improvement of relations between all levels has long been accepted as a very important element in the development and improvement of any industrial organization, and there are few long term successful management's which have not exerted a great deal of effort in this direction.

There is, however, the possibility that the policy of improved human relations may be pursued solely because of its effect on productivity, and not from the more fundamental motive of producing a correct and balanced attitude to the personal and social needs of the workers.

Merely to aim for higher output may bring neither greater output nor satisfaction to the worker, but if the aim is to bring more personal satisfaction to the worker in his work and his surroundings, then both higher output and job satisfaction may be achieved.

Needs of an Individual

Good human relations can only be established if the needs of an individual are satisfied and his / her will to work is stimulated. This presents the difficulty that management is dealing with a group of individuals, all of whom may respond differently in a given situation.

However, it is possible to generalize on the average response evoked in certain situations, and in the context of human relations in industry, it is possible to arrive at some general conclusions about man's attitude to work and the hopes, fears and aspirations he has regarding it.

The extent to which these hopes and desires are fulfilled in the work situation or working environment naturally governs the degree of job satisfaction derived by the worker. The extent to which the personal job satisfaction is achieved is the measure by which each worker will apply his/ her abilities and will to work.

  • To provide job satisfaction must, therefore, be the ultimate aim for those who organize and control workers.
  • To achieve this aim, it is necessary to provide motivation of the right type to all in the organization
The Work Environment

The work environment describes the factors which affect an individual when he or she is at work. It includes the:

  • human relationships such as management and trade unions with which the individual is concerned,
  • the working group of which he / she is a member,
  • the motivational policies of the organization,
  • the productivity agreements of his / her firm,
  • the physical conditions which affect him / her, and the psychological factors of the work situation.

There are many management theories on the effect of the work environment on individuals, achievement motivation and on working groups and it is, therefore, necessary to consider the view points and research of individuals who have been involved in this work. Individuals who have contributed research and theories include those listed people below.

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